INCOPA has published the results of a study into the life cycle of inorganic coagulants. Conducted by the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), the life cycle analysis (LCA) shows that the cradle-to-gate emissions of all coagulants studied averaged 0.154 kg CO2-eq/mole Fe3+ or Al3+. The value is extremely low.

A summary of the results and the full LCA report are available from our Resources page.