Coagulants are used for treatment of all kinds of water
Coagulation is the oldest known water treatment method
In industry, coagulants are frequently used for water treatment
In drinking water production, coagulants remove particles, humic substances and colour
Coagulants produce healthy and enjoyable drinking water
Coagulants are used for treatment of all kinds of water

As all INCOPA members produce inorganic coagulants which are used in the treatment of water, they are affected by a number of different regulations governing water quality. Current issues of concern to INCOPA members include:

Also other water related directives and regulation do also have an impact:


Industrial Uses
For industry, coagulants provide a method of reusing water in a cost-effective way that does not comprise the industrial process.
Drinking Water
In order to protect our health, all drinking water must be cleared of pathogens and impurities before it is used.
Waste Water
To ensure the water does no harm to people or the environment when it is released, waste water must be treated to reduce the level of contaminants to acceptable levels.
Paper Industry
Inorganic coagulants are used in two critical parts of the paper production process: sizing and retention.
Other Applications
In addition to their role as inorganic coagulants, aluminium and iron salts are used in many other applications.


How long have inorganic coagulants been used in water treatment?

Alum has been used at least since Roman times for purification of drinking water (cf. Chemistry of Water Treatment – Samuel D. Faust, Osman M. Aly (1999)). It is also reported that Egyptians used alum coagulant as early as 1500 BC to reduce the visible cloudiness in the water.

In the modern times, London became the first city to mandate that drinking water should be purified using coagulants, after an outbreak of cholera in 1854. By the start of the 20th Century, scientists better understood the role of inorganic coagulants in water purification and their use spread worldwide. The treatment of waste water with inorganic coagulants started on a large scale in the 1950s.