Coagulants are used for treatment of all kinds of water
Coagulation is the oldest known water treatment method
In industry, coagulants are frequently used for water treatment
In drinking water production, coagulants remove particles, humic substances and colour
Coagulants produce healthy and enjoyable drinking water
Coagulants are used for treatment of all kinds of water

INCOPA is the European Inorganic Coagulants Producers Association

Inorganic coagulants are aluminium and iron salts; elements essential for water treatment, paper manufacturing, cement industry and fertiliser production. They are naturally occurring and afford safe drinking water to billions the world over.

INCOPA’s members manufacture inorganic coagulants (aluminium and iron salts) which are used to purify drinking water, treat wastewater, and create vital products such as cement, fertilisers and paper.



Drinking Water
In order to protect our health, all drinking water must be cleared of pathogens and impurities before it is used.
Other Applications
In addition to their role as inorganic coagulants, aluminium and iron salts are used in many other applications.
Paper Industry
Inorganic coagulants are used in two critical parts of the paper production process: sizing and retention.
Waste Water
To ensure the water does no harm to people or the environment when it is released, waste water must be treated to reduce the level of contaminants to acceptable levels.
Industrial Uses
For industry, coagulants provide a method of reusing water in a cost-effective way that does not comprise the industrial process.


How long have inorganic coagulants been used in water treatment?

Alum has been used at least since Roman times for purification of drinking water (cf. Chemistry of Water Treatment – Samuel D. Faust, Osman M. Aly (1999)). It is also reported that Egyptians used alum coagulant as early as 1500 BC to reduce the visible cloudiness in the water.

In the modern times, London became the first city to mandate that drinking water should be purified using coagulants, after an outbreak of cholera in 1854. By the start of the 20th Century, scientists better understood the role of inorganic coagulants in water purification and their use spread worldwide. The treatment of waste water with inorganic coagulants started on a large scale in the 1950s.